ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.

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Observation of this phenomenon is based on more accessible water binding sites, i.

Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn 2009)

This is likely as well as it has previously been shown that the density of interfacial water strongly bound water on cellulose is increased when it is perturbed. Depending on the end-use application, a hydroentangled nonwoven fabric made by using a blend of cotton mote fibers and aatm bleach-less cleaned cotton lint gave optimal swelling and reasonably good moisture uptake.

Balanced material surface polarity, swelling, density, and moisture uptake is key to optimizing absorbent nonwovens for use in hygiene, incontinence, and even wound care applications, and the results of this study illustrate how these properties may be tuned in with cotton by products used in combination with greige cotton lint.

Absorbent applications Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber.

However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made d1171 spun yarns. The sample was secured in a paraffin base, which had a small effect on the comber noil pattern. qstm

Nonwoven greige cotton compares well with other commercial materials when analyzed for its performance as an incontinence layer surrounding the absorbent core. The water from the cotton sample from the vial is released and driven into the titration cell from which the percentage of moisture present is calculated from the volume of reagent consumed. The test procedures appear in the following sections: We have no amendments or corrections for this standard.


A peak width at half maximum height of 1. The crystallinity, electrokinetic, and water binding properties of the nonwoven by-product materials are discussed in the context of the molecular features water, cellulose, and greige cotton components that enhance potential uses as absorbent nonwoven end-use products. Diagram of a nonwovens hydroentanglement line. The basket is removed and aatm to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content.

ASTM D – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics

The Segal Crystallinity Index values arise almost completely from the overlap of the wide observed peaks Hydroentangled fabrics of different fiber blends. Swell test, k min However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].

You d11177 delete a document from your Alert Profile at any time. The microstructure of cotton fibers allows the penetration of water, in the case astj the greige cotton nonwovens studied d111. ASTM D—standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration. The swelling behavior of the incontinence products is measured using the Anton Paar analyzer with the cylindrical cell template.

Consideration aastm the phenomena of water binding to cellulosic fiber, from crystalline to fibrillar state, crystalline cellulose crsytallites of 36 cellulose chains or more has been characterized as low water binding ASTM Sink time s. Cotton fiber is naturally renewable and biodegradable. These two properties moisture uptake and swelling promote fluid transport.

Keywords nonwoven cotton surface properties cellulose water of hydration electrokinetic by-products. The differences between KFT and Kett are due, in part, to the different nature of the two methods. The modification was a short increase in the a -axis of the unit cell to 7. The calculated X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Figure 3.

Thus, the hydroentanglement process promotes the disruption of the fiber cuticle that retains some wax and pectin while exposing cellulose fibrils and microfibrils to water penetration.

In addition, the processing innovations of modern nonwovens provide a facile conduit for efficiently blending these types of discounted by-products with greige cotton ast to explore new, qstm cotton-blend nonwoven products. It further demonstrates the merit of focusing on material construction and analysis of fiber surface properties with novel by-product fibers at solid-liquid interfaces and the value of considering the molecular factors that influence properties of wettability and fluid transport as they exist in topsheet and layer components useful in absorbent prototypes, i.


Measurement of fabric polarity, charge, relative composition, swelling, and porosity Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples. Electrokinetic data for the hydroentangled fabric samples made with the different fibers and their blends.

ASTM D 1117

The cellulose-water interactions have been discussed in light of these findings. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of comber noil, gin motes, and UltraClean cotton.

A subsequent loosening of the fiber cuticle resulting in the exposure of the cellulosic portion of the fiber is evidenced in the SEM image of nonwoven greige cotton shown in Figure 3. After sinking, the sample is then allowed to remain submerged in water for 10 s.

The calculated surface-to-volume ratio of smaller cellulose crystallites, as observed with the cotton by-products, is higher than the greige cotton, which infers more accessible hydroxyls for bound water. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. A quantity of cotton gin mote fibers was also obtained from T. As the voice of the U. In combination with surface-exposed cellulose from nonwoven hydroentanglement process conditions, unique fiber properties are retained when compared to scoured and bleached cotton.

The pH dependence of the zeta potential is investigated with the background electrolyte of 1 mM KCl solution.